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November 19, 2020 0 In the previous post, we explained How to install KVM on Debian 10 / Ubuntu 20.04. This book is for anyone who is responsible for administering the security requirements for one or more systems that run the Oracle Solaris operating system. Using UNIX Permissions to Protect Files - Oracle Solaris. I know the certs are good.
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The default TIMEZONE in a native non-global zone can be selected the same way as for a global zone. Solaris 2.6 and earlier were only 32 bits. Your system sets up your system environment by using a set of specifications that are defined in the initialization files. Your job seeking activity is.
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The above example, therefore, displays the following output: A Practical Example. Solaris 10 patch set folder. ERROR: failed to parse patch set configuration file does anyone have any idea why. We have two Solaris 10 servers with same configuration and settings.
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Host ID is a a specific piece of information which uniquely identifies a computer. If you can, specify the organizational domain name so that Postfix can use DNS lookups, and so that it can fall back to a secondary MX host when the primary MX host is down. Hi, I used to run [email protected] on a Solaris 8 machine years ago (before BOINC), and everything ran fine. That leads to the release of Solaris 11.0 to 11.3 from 2020 to 2020.
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Patch Clusters and Patch Bundles are popular collections of patches providing specific functionality. If there is no match, access will be denied and the mount will fail. Our commercial products also run on all other versions of Windows and on the Macintosh OS X, Linux, and Solaris operating systems. What is default shell for users in /etc/passwd for Solaris 11?
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Source: man 1 less and built-in help in less (less 418). If you are prompted for a port number, then specify one. Solaris 10 - Print to File 4 posts. Windows 95 OSR 2. Windows 95 offered, at long last, a well designed document-oriented desktop shell that worked much like the 1984 Macintosh Finder.
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On the client, I did the automount -v and it says "no mounts and no unmounts". EVILSUN - a remote exploitation tool that gains access to Solaris 10 and 11 systems of SPARC or i386 architecture using a vulnerability (CVE-2020-14871) exposed by SSH keyboard-interactive authentication. The PuTTY command-line SSH client, the PuTTYgen key generation utility, the Pageant SSH authentication agent, and the PuTTY SCP and SFTP utilities are packaged together in a Windows installer available under The MIT License for free download from the PuTTY development team. Just to check if the folder is still empty, in fact it will return a 0 if there is no new file (hence the isempty folder is still empty) or, on the other hand, it will return a value greater than 0 (actually the number of files currently in the folder).
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Beyond Compare is a multi-platform utility that combines directory compare and file compare functions in one package. One more question about memory on Solaris 10. A top shows me that I have 672 MB free memory: 130 processes: 126 sleeping, 2 zombie, 2 on cpu CPU states: 95.1% idle, 3.9% user, 1.0% kernel, 0.0%. Gerry Haskins Wednesday, April 18, 2020. Another place where you can see the attached serial devices is the /dev/serial/by-id folder.
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Rapidly, Oracle abandoned the OpenSolaris project and resumed Solaris development using a closed source model. The following explains how to clean up the '/' directory and is easiest if done immediately after installing Solaris. How to find all serial devices (ttyS, ttyUSB, ..) on Linux read more here. Checking if a folder is set with Sticky Bit or not?
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Connecting to GRACE: SSH Passwordless Login
Full Summary & Instructions for all computers near the bottom. Skip to there if you don't want to read my journey. It's much clearer. Read on instead to see my journey in more detail.
EDIT WARNING: I reference GLUE and GRACE servers on this post. The servers are really different. GRACE is RHEL 6.9 on x86_64, while GLUE is Solaris 10 on sparcv9. So logging into GLUE servers isn't using Linux or the type of processor used for 99% of the servers. However, using grace1.umd.edu instead of z.glue.umd.edu works. I'll finish fixing this post later. grace1 through grace9 works.
The Usual - Public KeysSince I've used SSH in the past, I knew how to use SSH public keys. You know, your standard ssh-keygen and ssh-copy-id. If you haven't used it before, it essentially allows you to authenticate with a file instead of a password.
I verified that my new public key was in authorized_keys on the server, and that I was using the generated private key when connecting. Yet, for some reason, the server just didn't accept it.
At first, I thought that it was the common problem of the .ssh folder not having the correct permissions, but this wasn't the case. Eventually, I stumbled across somewhere which said that the server couldn't access authorized_keys because it didn't exist until I logged in, because it uses AFS.
At this point, I'm out of my depth, but I keep on trying. What follows is my understanding, and might not be 100% correct.
Distributed Storage - AFSAFS, if you don't know, is what GLUE/GRACE uses to store all its files. It's a distributed filesystem. When you log into GRACE, whatever server you connect to dynamically loads your files using the password you give it. This way, everything seems normal, but the grace system can use multiple servers to manage the load of all the people in the university logging in.
It's why when you log in grace.umd.edu, it will redirect you to eg. z.glue.umd.edu, and show something like grace6 on the prompt before your cursor. If you log in to glue.umd.edu, it'll show something like z or y instead. I don't know the difference between the two addresses, but they seem pretty much the same.
Ultimately, this means that without logging in, sshd can't access your home directory, so it can't read the acceptable private keys from your home directory, so you can't log in.
Another Way - Kerberos & GSSAPII figured, aren't there other ways of logging in with ssh? Well, yes, there are. Grace allows publickey, gssapi-with-mic, keyboard-interactive and Glue allows publickey, gssapi-with-mic, password. Publickey is what I've been talking about, and keyboard-interactive is essentially password, but the server handles the interaction. So a server could theoretically have you solve a puzzle instead of requiring a password.
GSSAPI is the key in our case. I've never heard of it before, but I'll explain it.
The university uses a login protocol called Kerberos. It's a thing made originally by MIT to be used as a Single Sign-On, or SSO. This means that you can use one username and password, and it would work across many different services. This isn't revolutionary now, because we've had it for years and years, even across many different companies, eg. Google Login.
Kerberos was made so you'd log in to Kerberos, it would give you a 'ticket', and you can use that ticket to log in to some service that accepts those Kerberos tickets. For example, if you try to login to ELMS, that webpage you see will use the username and password you give it to get a Kerberos ticket, and use give that to the Canvas application which will then know who you are. When you log in to a grace server, they will similarly use Kerberos to log you in.
GSSAPI is commonly used with Kerberos to log in to places. So perfect for our use.
Missing Instructions - Installing OpenAFS and HeimdalUnfortunately, I had no idea how to set that up. However, AFS also uses Kerberos, so if you install that, then GSSAPI with SSH isn't far away. A particular benefit of installing AFS is that it essentially allows you to access all the files as if it were on a hard drive connected to your computer. Using other systems, like WebDAV, do not feel that smooth.
The university provides information here, on accessing GLUE with different methods. The bottom one is AFS. None of the links are helpful except for the Windows one, which is a university help link. The Mac one doesn't even exist. The Windows one leads to a link to installing Heimdal, which is a Windows Kerberos implementation. For some reason all the provided links are old, so here are the newer ones. The first two links come from secure-endpoints.com. Heimdal, Network Identity Manager. OpenAFS is for both Windows and Mac. They must be installed in that order. Read through the two links for the little bit of information on installing them both.
Here's where I ran into a bit of a road block. I got Network Identity Manager and AFS working perfectly fine. I was not able to get them to work with SSH, until I was nearly finished writing this journey section.
The Nearly Failed Experiment - My Setup using MSYS2 or PuTTYI usually use a variant of Cygwin called MSYS2 to do most of my unix stuff on Windows. It already has Heimdal installed, but I was not able to get it to work. This seems to be good instructions on getting openssh to work with Kerberos.
Note that it needs some info installed in a Kerberos file, with libdefaults at the top. This is the same file that the university instructions give you to install. This is required for Network Identity Manager, and lets Heimdal work correctly in MSYS2 and normal Windows.
MSYS2When you run kinit -R 7d your-username, it fails with kinit: krb5_cc_get_principal: Empty credential cache file. Running kinit your-username seems to work. Running klist shows a working ticket in a working credentials cache, but running the original kinit command gets the same error. When you run ssh, the debug gives unknown mech-code 2529639054 for mech 1 3 6 1 4 1 311 2 2 10 and fails to connect, but klist adds another successful ticket connection. This is if you connect to glue. If try to connect to grace, the debug will also tell you that Kerberos doesn't know what grace is. The first error leads to a Cygwin mailing list on Google, but their connection actually authenticated, while mine didn't (at first).
This was when I reread this, which if you recall, was how I realized that I couldn't use publickey. If you instead connect to z.glue.umd.edu (or y or x or w), then it will work. Finally! Let's get it to work with PuTTY.
Note: run kdestroy -A to reset the terminal Kerberos stuff.
Normal Windows in cmd.exeRunning kinit -R 7d your-username fails. Running kinit your-username in cmd.exe seems to work, but when you run klist, nothing shows up like in MSYS2. Testing with kdestroy -A when I do get it to work shows that it does. Connect with PuTTY like this. Remember to use something like z.glue.umd.edu. I tested both C:\Program Files\Heimdal\bin\gssapi.dll and C:\Program Files\Heimdal\bin\gssapi64.dll, and they both worked.
Summary for all computers
Usual Public KeyOn any other system, you would use public key authentication. You would use ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 and ssh-copy-id -i id_rsa [email protected] and add the corresponding information to your .ssh/config file. Unfortunately, the UMD GRACE system uses AFS to store our home directory, so the server cannot authenticate using public key authentication, because the server has no public keys to authenticate against.
Kerberos & HeimdalInstead, we will use gssapi-with-mic. This will allow the server to authenticate us using a system called Kerberos, which is the same authentication system as ELMS, for example.
First, everyone needs Heimdal, an implementation of Kerberos:
- Windows Computers will need to download Heimdal here.
- macOS Computers should have it already installed.
- Linux Distributions will either already have it installed, or need to install it using their package manager.
- Cygwin users will need to install it from the package manager.
- MSYS2 users should already have it installed, but if not, can get it from pacman.
Heimdal SettingsKerberos works by authorizing 'tickets' when you give your username and password to the system. These tickets can last however long as specified, usually 10 hours by default. As long as they are renewed before they expire, you don't need to type your password in again.
On each platform, you will have to replace a particular file to get it working here at UMD. The following is the file:
[libdefaults] default_realm = UMD.EDU dns_lookup_kdc = true dns_lookup_realm = true forwardable = trueReplace your version of krb5.conf with krb5.conf.old and add the above in its place.
Note that the default realm is UMD.EDU, all caps. That's how realms work in Kerberos. If you use multiple realms, then that's on you to figure out.
|Linux||/etc/krb5.conf or /etc/krb5/krb5.conf|
InterfaceYou can use heimdal from a gui interface or from the terminal. Here is the information for each platform:
WindowsYou should install Network Identity Manager so you can avoid using the terminal. The link is at the bottom of the page, as "Network Identity Manager 188.8.131.52 (64-bit MSI)".
My installation's klist didn't show my tickets like it was supposed to, so it's just best to use Network Identity Manager.
- Click on Obtain New Credentials.
- Username should be your username, eg. mine was smberger. Realm should be UMD.EDU. Otherwise it won't work.
- You can leave the credentials options, but make this your default identity. I set my lifetime for 1 day.
- Hit finish, and enter your password, then hit finish again.
- You can renew your identity just before it expires.
- You already have Ticket Viewer under /System/Library/CoreServices.
- Enter [email protected] and your password under password.
- You should be all set, but I don't have a mac, so this is untested.
- You should make Ticket Viewer easily accessible so you can renew tickets easily.
Linux/Cygwin/MSYS2This should be pretty simple for you.
- Type kinit username.
- Since you put in the config file, it will know the realm automatically.
- I tested this using MSYS2, so I had errors when adding extra options to kinit, like kinit -R 7d username. I don't know why this is, but you might be fine.
- Type klist to see your tickets and kdestroy -A to destroy them all.
SSHThe protocol SSH uses to connect with Kerberos is called GSSAPI. The particular version SSH uses is called gssapi-with-mic, where mic means message integrity code.
I will be talking about PuTTY on Windows, and OpenSSH for everyone else.
OpenSSHI typically use .ssh/config. Here's mine.
Host umd HostName z.glue.umd.edu User smberger GSSAPIAuthentication yes GSSAPIDelegateCredentials yesYou can change your Host line to be whatever. This allows me to type in ssh umd and for it to just login.
For HostName, this is the server you'll be logging in to. For some reason, GSSAPI fails with grace.umd.edu and glue.umd.edu, so you need to choose a particular server that both redirect to. You can choose z, y, x, and w. I'd recommend randomly choosing one as you type this in, since everybody always using z removes the load balancing connecting to grace and glue gives.
GSSAPIAuthentication turns GSSAPI on and off, and it's off by default. You can turn it on by default if you wanted to instead of turning it on for a particular host.
GSSAPIDelegateCredentials is also required, otherwise the server will not be able to log in to your account when you log in to the server.
PuTTYPlease read through the OpenSSH section please, for the information on the host name, due to peculiarities that have occurred, and choose the host name likewise.
- Set your username in Connection/Data and then open up Connection/SSH/Auth/GSSAPI.
- Attempt GSSAPI authentication should be ticked, and Allow GSSAPI credential delegation should be ticked.
- Next, bring User-specified GSSAPI DLL to the top in the preference order.
- Set User-supplied GSSAPI library path to C:\Program Files\Heimdal\bin\gssapi.dll.
OpenAFSAt this point, you can test it, and your SSH should connect perfectly! But since we went through all the effort of installing Kerberos, we can use it for more stuff, too!
The university files are stored using a system called AFS, including your home directory. This is why we needed to go through this mess in the first place. Fortunately, this means you can set up a network drive on your computer that will act just like hard drive, instead of a buggy WebDAV connection.
I'm not going to bother going into too much detail, but go to here to get a copy for both Windows and macOS.
When you install, set your cell to glue.umd.edu. It should work straight away. On Windows, you can mess around with settings in Network Identity Manager.
To open up the file system, open /afs/ on macOS. It should leave a drive folder on your desktop. On Windows, go to Map Network Drive and enter something like the following for the location: \\afs\glue.umd.edu\home\glue\s\m\smberger. smberger is my username. Notice how there is the s and the m for the first two letters of your username. If my username was username, it would be glue\u\s\username. macOS users can navigate similarly inside /afs/.
Now you can access everything inside your GLUE drive super easily.
If you're on Linux, you should be savvy enough to figure out stuff to automount it and what not. Cygwin and MSYS2 users can just use the mounted network drive, like they would use their C drive.
FinallyEverything should be working. If it's not, I'm not the best tech support; I literally just finished figuring this out. I'd recommend googling everything as much as you can.
Corrections are welcome. I'm definitely not an expert with Kerberos.
This was written on 1/27/18 and finished on 1/28/18, and I don't think I have ever been so frustrated trying to figure stuff out. I'll probably run into something more frustrating eventually, like debugging my program only to run into a compiler or hardware error.
OS X 10.9+ and Netatalk.
Been researching this issue for a while now with no solution in sight I thought I would ask you guys. We are basically having crazy performance issues ever since 10.9 was released. We are running Netatalk on Solaris 11.2. We noticed that the Finder is constantly talking to the server asking it for the metadata for all the files/folders, and I know it's always done this but it increased exponentially with 10.9 and above. This causes the finder to beach ball whenever opening a new folder. It's almost unusable sometimes. I've excluded any network shares from spotlight indexing, prevented creating .DS_Store files on network shares, set delayed_ack to 0 and 2, checked all the network gear and nothing seems to work. We are running large data sets of mostly graphic files. About 60+ TB consisting of 1Mil+ files. All divided up into half a dozen or so different shares. The server is built out and has 8 aggregated 1Gb interfaces with SSD's and a ton of RAM and it doesn't really register any significant load when this occurs so it can definitely handle the stress but doesn't seem like the client stations can. Anyone else running into this issue? I'm thinking of getting a new MacPro and using some thunderbolt to 10G or Fibre to put in front of our Solaris server and just sharing out via NFS to the MacPro and have the MacPro create the AFP shares. Thanks for reading.